| Eccentric Training – Break Through Training Plateaus |
Eccentric training – the ultimate way to break through training plateaus and maximise your strength. Let’s dig in deeper and get to it.
Set the Scene
Ever feel like you lose your balance? Or have “poor coordination”? Many people struggle with the ability to control their body position particularly when performing newer exercises. Although this is a product of kinaesthetic awareness, stability is significantly influenced by your eccentric strength.
On top of that, if you ever find yourself hitting a plateau with your strength, particularly in the squat, bench press, pull-up etc. then this article is perfect for you; it will show you the answer you’ve been looking for.
Learn the topic.
Muscles work in 3 different ways when under active tension:
- Concentric: this is the method of muscle action most people are familiar with. The shortening of muscle fibers under tension, or in other words, the “lifting of a weight”.
- Isometric: I’ve written an entire guide on this method of training previously. This is where the muscle is under active tension, but there is no significant change in muscle length and no movement actually occurs. E.g. pushing as hard as you can against a wall.
- Eccentric: this is the one most bodybuilders are familiar with due to the “muscle damage” aspect of the motion. This is where the muscle lengthens under tension, or in other words, the lowering of a weight.
Which is the Most Important?
There is no perfect method of training and never will be. It all depends on what you’re aiming to achieve and where your weaknesses lie. If you’re someone who has a blatant sticking point/weak joint angle or is aiming to maximize neurological strength, then isometric training may be for you.
However, if you’re someone who needs to learn more control in a movement and wants a new training stimulus that will bring about gains you’ve never felt before, eccentric training may be the way to go.
How much Do you Lower Bro?
Let’s face it. No one cares. Throughout historical accounts of remarkable feats of strength, people only really document what someone was able to lift from A to B (such as Paul Anderson’s Backlift), or hold in position. But in very few places are there records of what someone was able to lower under control.
This largely because it’s very difficult to standardize. It’s easy to record and check if someone has lifted a weight from A to B, but how do we know if someone had the weight under tension or simply just held it in place and then dropped it.
Unless we use time. Which we will discuss later.
Architecture – We’re Built for It
May be not you personally, especially in comparison to the people around you. But relative to other animals in the animal kingdom, it’s well known that humans are weak. Our biomechanical levers in each joint don’t favour us at all and then the metabolic cost of producing a concentric muscle contraction is quite high, compared to low cost eccentric contraction (12).
Although we may be weak, our muscles are designed to be much stronger and more efficient at lowering things or, performing eccentric contraction. In fact, some studies have documented that humans can produce 20-30% more force at the same level of activation during eccentric contraction (15) and we may be up to 60% stronger (8).
Training Specificity – Is there Carryover?
Now, there is a significant element of specificity in training. We know that the more you practice something, the better you become at it and you may be thinking, “Surely training to lower weights will only get you better at lowering weights?”
However, what most people don’t realize about the body (particularly the nervous system), is that when placed under a significant amount of stress, positive adaptations can occur on a systemic, whole body level, in areas/movements that aren’t directly trained.
A classic example of this is known as cross education in orthopedic rehabilitation. It used to be the case (out of fear of muscle imbalances) that you didn’t want to train the unaffected limb. However, more recent knowledge has shown that unilateral strength training also increases the voluntary activation of the untrained limb (16).
Keeping this systemic, whole body response in mind, eccentric training (although it emphasizes the lowering phase), can directly increase the strength within the lifting phase. In fact, because you are able to train at a higher intensity (e.g. handle weight up to 40% heavier), you can become even stronger than simply doing traditional training.
Eccentric overload training has been shown to result in significant strength gains and even greater gains in jump height when compared to traditional training (7). In fact, the researchers stated that
“enhanced eccentric load led to a subtly faster gene expression pattern, inducing a shift towards faster muscle phenotypes”.
In other words, the enhanced eccentric load also has the potential to lead to increased power and speed.
This is Absolutely Mental…
If there is one aspect of eccentric exercise that truly amazed me, it’s this one. Get your nerd hat on.
Cortical activity is the term given to what is going on in the cerebral cortex, in reference to how we experience movement and how we interact with our environment. Different types of exercise results in changes in cortical activity (6), that differs depending on both the exercise mode and intensity employed (2, 5).
This is the craziest part. When it comes to stability, we know that synergist muscles (stabilising muscles that contribute to the movement alongside the prime movers) are incredibly important, those who don’t have stability tend to show case weakness in this area. However, eccentric exercise has been shown to result in preferential recruitment of fast twitch motor units in synergist muscles when compared to traditional concentric lifting (11, 19, 20).
To add to that, neuro-imaging of the brain has shown a greater amount of feedback to the brain during eccentric contractions with regarding to factors like body position, pain etc. when compared to concentric actions (18, 25). Researchers think this is due to the body’s attempt to prevent excess structural muscle damage (22).
So, taking this in mind. When you’re wanting to improve your movement efficiency/technique within a movement, the eccentric portion of the movement is significantly more important than you may have thought.
It’s Simply Better
Research by Hortobagyi et al. (10) found that even when adding weight to the eccentric contraction (around 50% additional weight), subjects gained 2.0x more strength when compared to a traditional training group (who lifted and lowered the same amount of weight).
Now you could say that it’s because the first group simply did more training volume. However, this study accounted for that, decreasing the total reps down by the eccentric overload group to make sure the total weight lifted (sets x reps x load) was the same.
Continuing from above, another study found a 29% vs. 19% increase in eccentric enhanced vs. traditional training in the hamstrings muscle group (13). In fact, a recent systematic review summarised that using loads in eccentric training (that were not limited by what you could lift) was a superior mode of training, which…
…“Appears to be superior to traditional resistance training in improving variables associated with strength, power and speed (3)”.
Newbie Gains Train
Now, if you’re brand new to lifting – there is a bit of ambiguity as to whether or not this method of training is effective for you.
Research has shown similar gains between both traditional resistance training and eccentric overload training for untrained subjects (24). However, it is important to note two things:
- They didn’t equate for volume – the eccentric training group gained the same increases in strength, but with approximately 40% less training time and a 15% lower overall volume.
- Eccentric training does help to reinforce stability – as I’ve mentioned before, most people fall short in their pursuit of strength as they totally neglect the importance of tension and stability when lifting. I was a victim of this myself. You focus so much on the lifting that you lose your technique on a regular basis, all for nothing. Beginners, although they may not have directly increased their max, they would have been much more aware of their overall control within the movement.
One thing this study did help to highlight, was the fact that despite the differences in training volume, the eccentric training group had significantly greater lactic acid response. This is one of the factors that is thought to contribute to delayed onset muscle soreness also known as DOMS.
DOMS – Volume Equating
You may have noticed me saying the words, “volume was matched” or something similar. As I’ve written about before, training volume refers to the total weight lifted (reps x sets x load). During eccentric training, if you are using a significantly heavier load, your volume will naturally go up. So, you cannot (and should not) use the same sets x reps scheme, as this could very quickly lead to over- training, or a state in which you are unable to recover due to the significant muscle damage that takes place during eccentric training.
For example, a study by Barstow et al. (1) found no significant improvements from eccentric overload training when compared to traditional training. However, the same reps + sets scheme was given to both groups, which may have resulted in too much training volume from the participants. As a result, there is a pretty big chance that the subjects simply weren’t able to adequately recover.
Stronger People Need More
Following on from the previous point, further research has highlighted that stronger subjects benefit more from the heavier eccentric loading (23), which may be explained by lower inhibition when tolerating heavy loads (4).
So if you squat 100kg, you may be able to benefit from 120kg eccentrics (+20%), but any higher may be too much for your body. Where as if you squat 200kg, you may be able to handle 260kg (+30%) and benefit from it.
My Lady – How Doth we Make Gains?
Something definitely worth noting is the difference between men and women in this respect. Although women recover much faster and basically have much higher durability then men, research has shown that women possess a greater difference between their eccentric and concentric strength, meaning they naturally have greater ability to lower a load than they do an ability to lift it (9).
Combine this with women tending to be more hyper-mobile and reduced joint stability, eccentric training is a great way to facilitate strength gains in women.
On top of everything else eccentric training has to offer, it can also help improve lower limb flexibility (21). If you struggle with squat depth, progressively increasing the load for eccentric based squats is a perfectly viable method!
Learn the science and theory.
Cross Bridge Resistance
Here we go again, let’s get your nerd hat on and pull up your high waisted smart pants. A quick explanation of muscle contraction.
Within a muscle belly, we have something known as muscle fibres, which can be broken down further into sarcomeres. Within each sarcomere are what’s known as, myofilaments. Myofilaments form the foundation of muscular contraction and although there are other biochemical factors at play, these are the mechanical components of muscle. And muscle contraction occurs through a mechanism known as “Huxley’s Sliding Filament Theory”.
- Actin. The thinner filament containing the attachment site for myosin.
- Myosin. The thicker filament with the head that reaches up, attaches to actin and pulls itself along to contract the muscle.
- *Desmin & Titin. Don’t worry about these little guys. Not that important for now and the research is still fully clear on the importance of these other myofilaments, but in the interest of full disclosure, I thought I would rouse your curiosity by letting you know there’s actually a few newly discovered myofilaments that we previously weren’t aware of.
As you can see in the beautifully constructed image below – the action of muscle contraction shortens the muscle. The myosin heads are responsible, as they pull on the actin filaments and draw everything towards the midline.
However, during an eccentric contraction there is resistance of these myosin heads. They’re hooked in and don’t really fancy letting go, as a result they resist being pulled apart slightly (even without excessive neural stimulation from your own effort). This one of the factors that contributes to something known as “passive force enhancement” (17).
You can Tell by the Way I Use My Walk
God damn. 3rd article using the same heading. That’s got to be a new record. But alas, head on over here to read more about how our ability to walk explains why eccentric strength is so important for walking and postural strength.
Learn the implementation.
This is the current issue with eccentric training – you have to get quite creative and logistically, it can be very inconvenient and annoying. Machines and pretty much all forms of equipment are constructed based off our love of lifting things rather than lowering them.
But before we go into specific exercises, we need to talk about the most important aspect –
Regardless of what you do, how we do it needs to be addressed first.
1. Smooth Like Butter, Baby
This is the hardest part for most people to understand, especially from a motor coordination point.
Ever heard the phrase –
“Walk before you try and run”. This couldn’t be more true with all forms of strength training, but especially with eccentric training.
The movement should look smooth throughout. If you’re moving the bar slowly at first as you lower into a squat and then all of a sudden drop at the last minute – you won’t receive the true benefits.
Maintaining control throughout the course of the whole movement is essential. This is obviously going to be much harder in the most stretched portion of the movement, but that’s where the fun begins!
Research has shown that something often referred to as, “over-speed eccentrics”, in which you perform the eccentric contraction in a rapid manner, actually increases the force produced (14).
However, it takes a hell of a lot of skill to maintain tension and move rapidly. So, I almost never recommend this method (unless you’re highly trained) and instead prescribe a much more controlled duration.
The research itself is relatively ambiguous and I won’t dive into that too much at this point (considering the wealth of references above, chances are that’s enough science for today). However, you want to focus on the relationship between duration and fatigue.
It’s a common mistake people make when using/focusing on eccentrics or tempo. They slow down way too much and end up not using a load that is actually overloading their maximal strength.
Anywhere between 3-6 seconds is recommended and has been used within most of the studies quoted above.
Bi to Unilateral
If you’re using machine work in isolation exercises or body weight exercises, you can use two limbs to lift and one to lower.
Think about a leg extension machine – use two to extend, then take pressure off one leg and lower with only one.
Or a body-weight squat to a box – use two legs to stand up, then perform a single leg/pistol squat down to the box.
Power Rack or Blocks
- Squat – Although very inconvenient, it’s possible to perform overload eccentrics down to blocks or safety pins that can catch the bar for you. You step out, strip some weight off, lift back up and repeat.
A great video demonstration of this is given here by Dr. Joel Seedman.
- Deadlift – Deadlift from blocks (due to the shorter range of motion you can usually lift more), have someone move the blocks away and perform the eccentric phase of the movement.
Simply be Aware
I can’t count how many times I’ve lost count of people falling into the bottom of the squat like they’ve just been launched from an aeroplane. Or people more or less drop the bar to their chest on bench press and wonder why they can’t lift it back up.
Simply being aware of and controlling the eccentric phase of the movement (although it won’t provide huge amounts of overload eccentrically) can help you receive many of the benefits this type of training has to offer.
Eccentric training isn’t for everyone. Everyone can benefit, but for significantly different reasons.
- Beginners – It is recommended to use eccentric training to reinforce stability, but this can be done by simply focusing on slowing the duration of the eccentric portion during normal lifts.
- Advanced – this is where supra-maximal (i.e more weight than you can physically lift) training comes into play. However, it needs to be noted that due to the heavier weights, the chance of injury may increase if not done correctly. It’s also recommended to use a spotter or training partner to make sure everything goes well throughout the lift.
- Eccentric training refers to emphasizing or isolation the lowering portion of an exercise.
- Humans are architecturally designed to be more efficient in eccentric contraction compared to concentric contractions – we’re up to 60% stronger eccentrically!
- Research has shown it to produce significantly greater progress compared to concentric based training, potentially due to greater overload to the nervous system.
- There are several reasons behind why we are stronger eccentrically: one of which being the passive force enhancement during cross bridge cycling.
- Although applicable for more or less everyone, it appears to be most effective for: beginners to reinforce stability, advanced to overload the nervous system and female trainees.
- When using eccentric only training with heavier loads, make sure you decrease the reps and sets to decrease your overall volume. Otherwise, the extra loads will inevitably impair your recovery.
- Tempo, Consistency and Overall Logistics of implementation are often the barrier to this type of training. But don’t let that stop you!
- Barstow, I. K., Bishop, M. D., & Kaminski, T. W. (2003). Is enhanced-eccentric resistance training superior to traditional training for increasing elbow flexor strength?. Journal of sports science & medicine, 2(2), 62
- Bruemmer, V., Schneider, S., Abel, T., Vogt, T., & Strueder, H. K. (2011). Brain cortical activity is influenced by exercise mode and intensity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(10), 1863-1872
- Douglas, J., Pearson, S., Ross, A., & McGuigan, M. (2017). Chronic adaptations to eccentric training: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 47(5), 917-941
- Enoka, R. M. (2008). Neuromechanics of human movement. Human kinetics.
- Fang, Y., Siemionow, V., Sahgal, V., Xiong, F., & Yue, G. H. (2001). Greater movement-related cortical potential during human eccentric versus concentric muscle contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 86(4), 1764-1772
- Flanagan, S. D., Dunn-Lewis, C., Comstock, B. A., Maresh, C. M., Volek, J. S., Denegar, C. R., & Kraemer, W. J. (2012). Cortical activity during a highly-trained resistance exercise movement emphasizing force, power or volume. Brain sciences, 2(4), 649-666
- Friedmann-Bette, B., Bauer, T., Kinscherf, R., Vorwald, S., Klute, K., Bischoff, D., … & Bärtsch, P. (2010). Effects of strength training with eccentric overload on muscle adaptation in male athletes. European journal of applied physiology, 108(4), 821-836
- Higbie, E. J., Cureton, K. J., Warren III, G. L., & Prior, B. M. (1996). Effects of concentric and eccentric training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and neural activation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(5), 2173-2181
- Hollander, D. B., Kraemer, R. R., Kilpatrick, M. W., Ramadan, Z. G., Reeves, G. V., Francois, M., … & Tryniecki, J. L. (2007). Maximal eccentric and concentric strength discrepancies between young men and women for dynamic resistance exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(1), 37-40.
- HortobÁgyi, T., Devita, P., Money, J., & Barrier, J. (2001). Effects of standard and eccentric overload strength training in young women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(7), 1206-1212.
- Howell, J. N., Fuglevand, A. J., Walsh, M. L., & Bigland-Ritchie, B. (1995). Motor unit activity during isometric and concentric-eccentric contractions of the human first dorsal interosseus muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74(2), 901-904
- Isner-Horobeti, M. E., Dufour, S. P., Vautravers, P., Geny, B., Coudeyre, E., & Richard, R. (2013). Eccentric exercise training: modalities, applications and perspectives. Sports medicine, 43(6), 483-512
- Kaminski, T. W., Wabbersen, C. V., & Murphy, R. M. (1998). Concentric versus enhanced eccentric hamstring strength training: clinical implications. Journal of athletic training, 33(3), 216
- Komi, P. V. (1973). Measurement of the force-velocity relationship in human muscle under concentric and eccentric contractions. In Biomechanics III(Vol. 8, pp. 224-229). Karger Publishers.
- Komi, P. V. (1986). Training of muscle strength and power: interaction of neuromotoric, hypertrophic, and mechanical factors. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 7(S 1), S10-S15
- Lee, M., Gandevia, S. C., & Carroll, T. J. (2009). Unilateral strength training increases voluntary activation of the opposite untrained limb. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(4), 802-808
- Leonard, T. R., DuVall, M., & Herzog, W. (2010). Force enhancement following stretch in a single sarcomere. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 299(6), C1398-C1401
- Matthews, P. B. (1991). The human stretch reflex and the motor cortex. Trends in neurosciences, 14(3), 87-91
- Moritani, T., Muramatsu, S., & Muro, M. (1987). Activity of motor units during concentric and eccentric contractions. American journal of physical medicine, 66(6), 338-350
- Nakazawa, K., Kawakami, Y., Fukunaga, T., Yano, H., & Miyashita, M. (1993). Differences in activation patterns in elbow flexor muscles during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 66(3), 214-220
- O’Sullivan, K., McAuliffe, S., & DeBurca, N. (2012). The effects of eccentric training on lower limb flexibility: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med, bjsports-201
- Romano, C., & Schieppati, M. (1987). Reflex excitability of human soleus motoneurones during voluntary shortening or lengthening contractions. The Journal of physiology, 390(1), 271-284
- Sheppard, J. M., & Young, K. (2010). Using additional eccentric loads to increase concentric performance in the bench throw. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(10), 2853-2856.
- Yarrow, J. F., Borsa, P. A., Borst, S. E., Sitren, H. S., Stevens, B. R., & White, L. J. (2008). Early-phase neuroendocrine responses and strength adaptations following eccentric-enhanced resistance training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1205-1214
- Yue, G. H., Liu, J. Z., Siemionow, V., Ranganathan, V. K., Ng, T. C., & Sahgal, V. (2000). Brain activation during human finger extension and flexion movements. Brain Research, 856(1-2), 291-300